Calculates the aspect of each cell in a raster.
Aspect is the direction component of a gradient vector. It is the
direction in degrees of which direction the maximum change in direction is pointing.
It is defined as the directional component of the gradient vector and is the
direction of maximum gradient of the surface at a given point. It uses Horn's method
for computing aspect.
As with slope, aspect is calculated from estimates of the partial derivatives dz / dx and dz / dy.
If Aspect operations encounters NoData in its neighborhood, that neighborhood cell well be treated as having
the same elevation as the focal cell.
Aspect is computed in degrees from due north, i.e. as an azimuth in degrees not radians.
The expression for aspect is:
val aspect = 270 - 360 / (2 * Pi) * atan2(`dz / dy`, - `dz / dx`)